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GIWAXS

(Natural) polymersApplicationCharacterizationCustomer publicationsGIWAXSMaterialOtherRenewable energySurface structure and patternsTechnique

Efficient Anti-solvent-free Spin-Coated and Printed Sn-Perovskite Solar Cells with Crystal-Based Precursor Solutions

He, Lintao; Gu, Hao; Liu, Xiaolong; Li, Pengwei; Dang, Yangyang; Liang, Chao; Ono, Luis K.; Qi, Yabing; Tao, Xutang

Tin-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs), with more consummate optical band gaps, lower exciton-binding energies, and higher charge-carrier mobility, have not attracted tremendous research efforts compared with the lead-based ones that have a record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 24.2%. The major challenges for Sn-based research are significantly low open-circuit voltage,…
(Natural) polymersApplicationCharacteristic dimensionCharacterizationCustomer publicationsGIWAXSMaterialOrientation analysisRenewable energyTechnique

Polyfluorene Copolymers as High-Performance Hole-Transport Materials for Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells

Hu, Jinlong; You, Jiang; Peng, Chang; Qiu, Shudi; He, Wenxin; Li, Chaohui; Liu, Xianhu; Mai, Yaohua; Guo, Fei

Inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that can be entirely processed at low temperatures have attracted growing attention due to their cost-effective production. Hole-transport materials (HTMs) play an essential role in achieving efficient inverted PSCs, as they determine the effectiveness of charge extraction and recombination at interfaces. Herein, three polyfluorene copolymers…
(Natural) polymersApplicationCharacterizationCustomer publicationsGIWAXSMaterialOrientation analysisPhase analysisRenewable energySurface structure and patternsTechniqueThin films

Regulating the phase separation of ternary organic solar cells via 3D architectured AIE molecules

Adil, Muhammad Abdullah; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Yuheng; Yu, Jinde; Yang, Chen; Lu, Guanghao; Wei, Zhixiang

An optimized bulk heterojunction (BHJ) interface, certifying enhanced exciton-splitting, charge separation and recombination inhibition, is vastly desired to obtain high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Herein, the ternary strategy has been employed to effectively modify the phase separation between the J71:ITIC blend by incorporating a 3D aggregation-induced emission (AIE) material,…
(Natural) polymersApplicationCharacterizationCustomer publicationsGIWAXSInorganic materialMaterialOrientation analysisPhase analysisPolymer researchSurface structure and patternsTechnique

How Confinement Affects the Nucleation, Crystallization, and Dielectric Relaxation of Poly(butylene succinate) and Poly(butylene adipate) Infiltrated within Nanoporous Alumina Templates

Safari, Maryam; Maiz, Jon; Shi, Guangyu; Juanes, Diana; Liu, Guoming; Wang, Dujin; Mijangos, Carmen; Alegría, Ángel; Müller, Alejandro J.

This work describes the successful melt infiltration of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) within 70 nm diameter anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The infiltrated samples were characterized by SEM, Raman, and FTIR spectroscopy. The crystallization behaviors and crystalline structures of both polymers, bulk and confined, were analyzed by…
ApplicationCharacterizationCustomer publicationsGIWAXSInorganic materialMaterialOrientation analysisOtherRenewable energySurface structure and patternsTechniqueThin films

Fine Multi-Phase Alignments in 2D Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency over 17% via Slow Post-Annealing

Wu, Guangbao; Li, Xing; Zhou, Jiyu; Zhang, Jianqi; Zhang, Xuning; Leng, Xuanye; Wang, Peijun; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Dongyang; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank); Zhou, Huiqiong; Zhang, Yuan

Layered Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) phase (2D) halide perovskites have attracted tremendous attention due to the wide tunability on their optoelectronic properties and excellent robustness in photovoltaic devices. However, charge extraction/transport and ultimate power conversion efficiency (PCE) in 2D perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are still limited by the non-eliminable quantum well effect.…
(Natural) polymersApplicationCharacterizationCustomer publicationsGIWAXSMaterialOrientation analysisRenewable energySurface structure and patternsTechnique

Relation Between Charge Transport and the Number of Interconnected Lamellar Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) Crystals

Wang, Binghua; Chen, Jingbo; Shen, Changyu; Reiter, Günter; Zhang, Bin

We have investigated the lateral charge transport in a multilamellar network of crystalline structures of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) embedded in a matrix of small crystallites and amorphous polymers resulting from crystallization at temperatures close to the melting point. Removing the matrix by an appropriate washing process allowed us to observe a…
(Natural) polymersApplicationCharacteristic dimensionCharacterizationCustomer publicationsGISAXSGIWAXSMaterialRenewable energySurface structure and patternsTechniqueThin films

A top-down strategy identifying molecular phase stabilizers to overcome microstructure instabilities in organic solar cells

Zhang, Chaohong; Heumueller, Thomas; Leon, Salvador; Gruber, Wolfgang; Burlafinger, Klaus; Tang, Xiaofeng; Perea, Jose D.; Wabra, Isabell; Hirsch, Andreas; Unruh, Tobias; Li, Ning; Brabec, Christoph J.

The operational stability of organic solar cells (OSCs) is the essential barrier to commercialization. Compared to thermally-induced degradation, photo-stability of OSCs is far away from being resolved. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal- and photo-degradation of metastable bulk-heterojunction OSCs are governed by the same mechanism. Understanding the fundamental principles behind…
(Natural) polymersApplicationCharacterizationCrystalline fractionCustomer publicationsGISAXSGIWAXSMaterialOrientation analysisRenewable energySurface structure and patternsTechniqueThin films

Comprehensive Investigation and Analysis of Bulk-Heterojunction Microstructure of High-Performance PCE11:PCBM Solar Cells

Zhang, Chaohong; Heumueller, Thomas; Gruber, Wolfgang; Almora, Osbel; Du, Xiaoyan; Ying, Lei; Chen, Junwu; Unruh, Tobias; Cao, Yong; Li, Ning; Brabec, Christoph J.

Worldwide research efforts have been devoted to organic photovoltaics in the hope of a large-scale commercial application in the near future. To meet the industrial production requirements, organic photovoltaics that can reach power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 10% along with promising operational device stability are of utmost interest. In…
(Natural) polymersApplicationCharacterizationCustomer publicationsGIWAXSMaterialPolymer researchSurface structure and patternsTechnique

Addition of Monovalent Silver Cations to CH3NH3PbBr3 Produces Crystallographically Oriented Perovskite Thin Films

Siegler, Timothy D.; Zhang, Yangning; Dolocan, Andrei; Reimnitz, Lauren C.; Torabi, Aida; Abney, Michael K.; Choi, Junho; Cossio, Gabriel; Houck, Daniel W.; Yu, Edward T.; Li, Xiaoqin; Harvey, Taylor B.; Milliron, Delia J.; Korgel, Brian A.

The incorporation of monovalent silver (Ag+) cations into methylammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) perovskite films leads to a strongly preferred (001) crystallographic orientation on a wide variety of substrates, ranging from glass to mesoporous TiO2. CH3NH3PbBr3 films deposited without Ag+ exhibit only a weakly preferred (011) orientation. Compositional maps and depth…
ApplicationCharacteristic dimensionCharacterizationCustomer publicationsGIWAXSInorganic materialMaterialRenewable energyTechniqueThin films

Controlling Processing, Morphology, and Mechanical Performance in Blends of Polylactide and Thermotropic Polyesters

de Kort, Gijs W.; Rastogi, Sanjay; Wilsens, Carolus H. R. M.

Thermoplastic composites based on thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) materials are interesting candidates for reinforced composite application due to their promising mechanical performance and potential for recyclability. In combination with a societal push toward the more sustainable use of materials, these properties warrant new interest in this class of composites.…