ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2019, vol 11, 20, pp. 18555-18563
Worldwide research efforts have been devoted to organic photovoltaics in the hope of a large-scale commercial application in the near future. To meet the industrial production requirements, organic photovoltaics that can reach power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 10% along with promising operational device stability are of utmost interest. In the study, we take PCE11:PCBM as a model system, which can achieve over 11% PCE when processed from nonhalogen solvents, to deeply investigate the morphologyperformancestability correlation. We demonstrate that four batches of PCE11 with varying crystalline properties can achieve similar high performance in combination with PCBM. Careful device optimization is necessary in each case to properly address the requirements for the quite distinct microstructures. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) microstructure is comprehensively investigated as a function of the macromolecular weight and crystallinity. It is demonstrated that small differences in morphology significantly affect the kinetics and thermodynamic equilibrium of the BHJ microstructure as well as the photostability and thermal stability of the PCE11:PCBM solar cells.