ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2019, vol 11, 17, pp. 15945-15951
Super black materials with extremely low reflectance and high absorption of incident light are crucial in various applications with strict optical requirements. However, the existing super black materials suffer from technical complexity in practical use whereas the underlying physics of their ultralow reflectance is still unclear. Herein, hierarchical porous carbon spheres are prepared using poly(vinylidene chloride-co-vinyl chloride) as a precursor. Dehydrochlorination treatment has proved to be very crucial for the morphology robustness of the porous polymer spheres during carbonization process. Coatings cast from the dispersion of these carbon spheres exhibit a hemispherical reflectance of <0.2% in the visible region and <0.3% in the range of 3002000 nm, and the lowest reflectance of 0.14% can be reached. This super black coating has great advantages in its easy availability of starting materials, low equipment requirement, and high adaptability onto various substrates. Besides, a theoretical investigation suggests that a small scatterer size and low volume-filling ratio are the two most essential factors in realizing ultralow reflectance, which also offers an instructive guidance for the rational design of super black materials.