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Regulating Pore Structure of Hierarchical Porous Waste Cork-Derived Hard Carbon Anode for Enhanced Na Storage Performance

Li, Yuqi; Lu, Yaxiang; Meng, Qingshi; Jensen, Anders C. S.; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Qinghua; Tong, Yuxin; Qi, Yuruo; Gu, Lin; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Hu, Yong-Sheng

Advanced Energy Materials, 2019, vol 9, 48, pp. 1902852

DOI:10.1002/aenm.201902852

Abstract

Porous structure design is generally considered to be a reliable strategy to boost ion transport and provide active sites for disordered carbon anodes of Na-ion batteries (NIBs). Herein, a type of waste cork-derived hard carbon material (CC) is reported for efficient Na storage via tuning the pore species. Benefiting from the natural holey texture of this renewable precursor, CCs deliver a novel hierarchical porous structure. The effective skeletal density test combined with small angle X-ray scattering analysis (SAXS) is used to obtain the closed pore information. Based on a detailed correlation analysis between pore information and the electrochemical performance of CCs, improving pyrolysis temperature to reduce open pores (related to initial capacity loss) and increase closed pores (related to plateau capacity) endows an optimal CC with a high specific capacity of ?360 mAh g?1 in half-cells and a high energy density of 230 Wh kg?1 in full-cells with a capacity retention of 71% after 2000 cycles at 2C rate. The bioinspired high temperature pore-closing strategy and the new insights about the pore structure–performance relationship provide a rational guide for designing porous carbon anode of NIBs with tailored pore species and high Na storage capacity.

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