Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 2016, vol 12, 8, pp. 2241-2250
Due to its physicochemical properties, nanostructured mesoporous SBA-15 silica shows great potential as a vaccine adjuvant. This study evaluated the capacity of SBA-15 to encapsulate/adsorb the recombinant purified HBsAg from the Hepatitis B virus and the immunoresponsiveness of mice orally immunized with HBsAg inside SBA-15. A simulation of small angle X-ray scattering experimental results, together with the nitrogen adsorption isotherms data, allowed to determine the appropriate mass ratio of HBsAg:SBA-15, indicating antigen encapsulation into SBA-15 macroporosity. This was also evaluated by bicinchoninic acid assay and gel electrophoresis. The recruitment of inflammatory cells, an increase in production of specific antibodies, and the non-influence of silica on TH1 or TH2 polarization were observed after oral immunization. Besides, SBA-15 enhanced the phagocytosis of ovalbumin by dendritic cells, an important key to prove how this adjuvant works. Thus, it seems clear that the nanostructured SBA-15 is an effective and safe adjuvant for oral immunizations.