Application notes

Application notes

Thorough investigation of oligomers during protein fibrillation

The transient nature of aggregates during the fibrillation process of α-synuclein is highlighted with in-house SAXS experiments using the BioXolver. Protein aggregation into fibrillar structures is associated with a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. It is becoming increasingly evident that the toxic species causing the…
19 March 2019
Application notes

In-lab SEC-SAXS for structural investigation of complex samples

SAXS data and 3D envelopes of small and large protein species are obtained through in-line gel filtration. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is commonly used to investigate the solution structure of biological macromolecules. Highly accurate results can be obtained with monodisperse solutions devoid of aggregates and impurities. Many biological processes, however,…
19 March 2019
Application notes

Protein-protein interactions – from in vivo functionality to pharmaceutics and food science

Salt concentration and pH impact were studied on lysozyme and BSA systems respectively by investigating various parameters (osmotic second virial coefficient, folding state and 3D shape). Protein-protein interactions are relevant for various biological processes, such as transcription and signal transduction, but also for protein crystallization, stability and shelf-life of pharmaceutical…
19 March 2019
Application notes

High throughput protein envelope determination

3D envelopes were determined from an automated sequence of measurements including 3 different proteins with low volume and dilute solutions. Small-angle X-ray scattering is complementary to other structural biology techniques. It provides reliable information on the shape of proteins in solution and associated parameters including macromolecule interactions and dynamics. Reliability of the…
14 March 2019
Application notes

Size distribution of Gold Nanoparticles

Shape and size of gold nanoparticles (NPs) in suspension have been determined by SAXS measurement. NPs are used even at very low concentration in many applications such as coatings, cosmetics or drug delivery. The performance of the final product depends not only on the chemical nature of the NPs but…
31 January 2019
Application notes

SAXS measurements of diluted solutions

SAXS investigations of Lysozyme solutions were performed enabling the calculation of the radius of gyration (Rg) and of the Pair-distance Distribution Function (PDDF). The Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique is now well known for studying biological systems and more specifically protein solutions. SAXS measurements allow the determination of the…
31 January 2019
Application notes

Polymer phase transformation

Simultaneous SAXS/WAXS measurements of a semi-crystalline polymer during thermal processing enables determination of route for phase transformation. It is well known that polymers undergo a large series of thermal transformations, from the synthesis in the reactor up to the final product shaping, i.e. during injection molding processing or film formation.…
18 December 2018
Application notes

Overview of a surfactant structure

SAXS/WAXS measurements were performed on the Head & Shoulders Classic Clean Shampoo from Procter & Gamble and reveal its inner structure. Many personal care products are concentrated surfactant systems displaying a multi-phasic microstructure. To design new properties through innovative formulation and to control the latter during the production process, good…
6 December 2018
Application notes

Silk fiber nanostructure investigation

SAXS/WAXS measurements enable the determination of the characteristic dimensions and the semi-crystalline structure of Bombyx mori cocoon silk fibers. The excellent mechanical properties of silk fibers made them of great practical interest. However, relations between the macromolecular structure and the functional properties are far from being understood. More specifically hierarchical…
21 November 2018
Application notes

Protein structure resolution

SAXS/WAXS investigation of the protein Sub-unit F of the eukaryotic V1V0 ATPase was performed using the Xeuss 2.0 SAXS/WAXS system, leading to its structure resolution. The Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique is now well known for studying biological systems and more specifically proteins in solution. SAXS measurements allow the determination…
21 November 2018
Application notes

Low detection limit of crystallinity

Low polyolefin crystallinity fraction down to 0.3 % was determined during a kinetic experiment using the Xeuss 2.0 SAXS/WAXS system in combination with an integrated temperature control stage, the Linkam HFSX350. Mechanical and physical properties of solid polymers are resulting from its crystallization kinetic which affects both the nanoscale structure…
21 November 2018
Application notes

Determination of polymer crystallinity

The level of crystallinity of a polyolefin was determined during a kinetic experiment using the Xeuss 2.0 SAXS/WAXS system in combination with an integrated temperature control stage, the Linkam HFSX350. Most polymer transformations from raw material to a finished product necessitate a processing step involving a melt (or molten state).…
21 November 2018